The world of audiovisual media has changed on a scale last seen with the shift away from print to digital photography. VOD has moved from an expensive concept limited by technology and bandwidth, to the norm in most of not only the developed world, but also as an accelerated equaliser in developing countries. This has increased the reach and potential of audiovisual translation.
While the skills required to create AVT have come within reach of a large groups of practitioners due to advances in editing software and technology, with many processes from transcription to cuing being automated, research on the reception and processing of multimodal texts has also developed rapidly. This has given us new insights into the way viewers, for example, process the text of subtitles while also attending to auditory input as well as the rich visual code of film. This multimodality of film, although being acknowledged as one of the unique qualities of translation in this context, is also often overlooked in technological advances. When the emphasis is on the cheapest and simplest way of transferring spoken dialogue to written text, or visual scenes to auditory descriptions, the complex interplay between language and other signs is often overlooked.
Eye tracking provides a powerful tool for investigating the cognitive processing of viewers when watching subtitled film with research in this area drawing on cognitive science, psycholinguistics and psychology. I will present a brief description of eye tracking in AVT as well as the findings of some recent studies on subtitle reading at different subtitle presentation rates as well as in the presence of secondary visual tasks.
Jan-Louis Kruger is professor and Head of the Department of Linguistics at Macquarie University. He started his research career in English literature with a particular interest in the way in which Modernist poets and novelists manipulate language, and in the construction of narrative point of view. From there he started exploring the creation of narrative in film and how audiovisual translation (subtitling and audio description) facilitates the immersion of audiences in the fictional reality of film. In the past decade his attention has shifted to the multimodal integration of language in video where auditory and visual sources of information supplement and compete with text in the processing of subtitles. His research uses eye tracking experiments (combined with psychometric instruments and performance measures) to investigate the cognitive processing of language in multimodal contexts. His current work looks at the impact of redundant and competing sources of information on the reading of subtitles at different presentation rates and in the presence of different languages.